The hottest small hydropower in the Yangtze River

2022-09-23
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Small hydropower stations in the Yangtze River Basin have been exposed to cut off 333 tributaries, and green transformation is imperative.

small hydropower stations have made contributions to national economic and social development and the improvement of people's lives. However, for some small hydropower stations built in the early stage, due to the lack of overall planning of the river and other reasons, researchers can be sure that the influence of humidity on the hydrogen bond interaction between the go layer and the interlayer spacing will inevitably have a negative impact on the local ecology. How to develop and utilize hydropower resources in a limited, orderly and paid manner, and avoid the problem of extensive development of rural small hydropower through scientific planning and strict supervision - promoting the construction of green hydropower is on the agenda

small hydropower is an important livelihood water conservancy infrastructure in China, and plays an important role in ensuring economic and social development and improving the quality of life of the people, especially in promoting the income and wealth of farmers. However, in recent years, with the frequent exposure of cases of small hydropower stations damaging the ecological environment, the disorderly development of small hydropower has attracted social attention. Where should rural small hydropower stations, which stand at the crossroads of transformation and development, go

small hydropower is exposed to disorderly development

on June 19, the National Audit Office released the audit results of ecological and environmental protection in the Yangtze River economic belt, which showed that by the end of 2017, 24100 small hydropower stations had been built in 10 provinces of the Yangtze River economic belt, with a minimum spacing of only 100 meters. Among them, 78 small hydropower stations have been built in 6 provinces after the delimitation of nature reserves, and 426 abandoned power stations in 7 provinces have not removed barrages and other buildings. What is more serious is that over development has caused 333 rivers to be cut off to varying degrees, with a total length of 1017 kilometers

what does river closure mean? Taking Nanguang River, a tributary of the Yangtze River in Yunnan Province, as an example, there are more than 30 small hydropower stations within 50 kilometers of Nanguang River, of which 13 have caused river closure to varying degrees. It is learned that a diversion type small hydropower station on the Nanguang River, the gate leading to the natural river channel on the river has been closed for a long time, the rope controlling its opening has long been broken, and the surrounding stones are covered with moss. At present, it is in the flood season, and there is still water flow in the river, but in the dry season in winter, more than 3/4 of the hot air plastic granulator was cut off for 800 meters

"for small and medium-sized hydropower stations, increasing ecological flow basically directly reduces the benefits of hydropower stations, because while ensuring ecological flow, the corresponding amount of water that can be used for power generation is reduced." Tang Qiuhong, a researcher at the Institute of Geographical Sciences and resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, said. How will hydropower stations choose between water release and revenue? The answer is obvious

in order to thoroughly solve the environmental problems such as insufficient discharge of ecological flow, too dense cascades, and the reduction and drying up of some river sections, the national development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of water resources, the national energy administration, and the Ministry of ecological environment all regard the restoration of the ecological environment of the Yangtze River as an overwhelming task this year. For more than a month, relevant ministries and commissions have also carried out thorough inspections in response to the impact of the disorderly development of small hydropower stations in the Yangtze River Economic Belt on the ecological environment

it is understood that at present, the above-mentioned investigation and verification work has been basically completed, and the feedback and verification of small hydropower stations with objections from all parties are being carried out. For example, should small hydropower stations in nature reserves be demolished

"the small hydropower stations in the nature reserve have been built and operated for decades, forming a new ecological balance with the surrounding environment. If they are demolished and blown up, they will have a great impact on the environment and property." Chenshaojin, deputy director of the Hunan water resources department, who has participated in the research on the ecological environment improvement of small hydropower for many times, said, for example, the Jiangya Hydropower Station developed and constructed in 1995 has a flood control capacity of 700million cubic meters in the core area of the nature reserve. According to the regulations on nature reserves, it is necessary to dismantle the 700million cubic meters of flood control capacity, but how to ensure the safety of people's lives and property? "According to the provisions of the flood control law and the water resources management law, small hydropower stations with flood control and irrigation functions must be retained, because the flood control law is higher than the regulations on nature reserves." Chen Shaojin said

small hydropower endowments cannot be ignored

hydropower is an important clean renewable energy. According to statistics, the installed capacity of small hydropower stations in China has been nearly 78 million KW, with an annual power generation of 268.2 billion kwh. The built small hydropower stations have made important contributions to solving the problem of population electricity consumption in areas without electricity and power shortage and promoting river management, ecological improvement, environmental protection, etc

according to the statistics of the Ministry of water resources, through the development of small hydropower stations, thousands of small and medium-sized rivers have been preliminarily treated nationwide, forming a reservoir capacity of more than 280 billion cubic meters and an effective irrigation area of more than 100 million mu. Since the implementation of the small hydropower instead of fuel project, the domestic fuel of 4million farmers has been solved nationwide, which can reduce the consumption of firewood by 6.7 million cubic meters every year and protect 14million mu of forest

farmers' feelings are more real. In Tangxi Town, Jinhua City, Zhejiang Province, small hydropower was once a "match" to light up the mountain township. "Jiufeng reservoir, located on houdaxi, a tributary of Qujiang River in the upper reaches of Qiantang River, directly solves the problem of power shortage in the rural areas of Tangxi town." Xushouchun, deputy secretary of the Party committee of Tangxi Town, said that the relationship between a power station and a reservoir in the upstream and the villages and towns in the downstream is harmonious. If there is no engineering regulation and storage, there will be no stable irrigation in the villages and towns

not long ago, the National Rural Hydropower statistical bulletin issued by the Department of rural hydropower and reservoir resettlement of the Ministry of water resources showed that by the end of last year, there were nearly 50000 rural hydropower stations across the country, with installed capacity and annual power generation accounting for nearly 1/4 of the national hydropower, and the average household electricity price per kWh was about 0.5 yuan, benefiting 41000 registered poor households in 64 poor villages

under the specific economic environment, small hydropower has indeed made its due contribution. However, experts also remind that some small hydropower stations built in the early stage lack the overall planning of the river, and some do not strictly follow the procedures in the construction process. Just like the problems exposed by the environmental protection inspectors of the Qilian Mountain Nature Reserve, the development and utilization of small hydropower inevitably changes the local ecology

"we should understand small hydropower scientifically. On the one hand, we should give full play to the green endowment advantages of small hydropower; on the other hand, we should also avoid the problem of extensive development of rural small hydropower through scientific planning and strict supervision." According to Xing Yuanyue, deputy director of the rural hydropower and reservoir resettlement Department of the Ministry of water resources, small hydropower should adhere to ecological priority, develop locally and supply power nearby, and realize the "blood making" function by exploring asset income

at present, the technology of small hydropower in China is mature, and the survey, construction and equipment manufacturing have reached the international leading level. The input-output ratio of small hydropower is also relatively high, and the power generation is 1.5 times that of wind power. It can be seen that there is no problem with the endowment of small hydropower, and its negative impact is caused by disorderly development and extensive management in some places, which is rooted in the imperfect system

luguihua, Vice Minister of the Ministry of water resources, said that we should, in accordance with the requirements of the new development concept, promptly deal with practical problems and problems that the masses urgently need to solve, and adopt a variety of technical and economic means to minimize the impact of ecological change, but we cannot deny the historical contribution of small hydropower, let alone mistakenly characterize small hydropower as an ecological disaster

green transformation is imperative

"at present, people's needs for river functions are increasingly diversified." Lu Guihua said that in the past, most small hydropower projects were based on power generation. Now more and more small hydropower projects not only need to generate electricity, irrigation and water supply, but also meet the needs of ecological water and landscape water, and provide hydrophilic entertainment products, "In response to the new expectations of the people for the transformation of river function requirements, we should pay attention to solving the imbalance and insufficiency in the development of small hydropower, adjust the functions of small hydropower stations accordingly, focus on expanding and improving the level of comprehensive utilization, and let the people feel the achievements of green small hydropower development"

at the Qiaopu hydropower station in Shiquan County, Shaanxi Province, the completion of the station not only ended the history of no electricity in the remote mountainous areas in the north of the county, but also maintained the natural ecology of the downstream river. It is understood that the length of the water reducing reach between the plant and dam is 1.2 km. In order to ensure the ecological flow demand of the downstream river, an ecological unit with an installed capacity of 400 kW has been built behind the dam, and to ensure the perennial operation of the ecological unit. When the uninterrupted discharge is not low, and the difference is beyond ± 2, the hardness meter must be revised and repaired or replaced with other hardness testing methods to measure the ecological flow of more than 10% of the average flow of the dam site for many years. "Although the installed capacity is small, as long as we adhere to the road of green development, there is still much to be done in energy conservation and emission reduction, improving people's livelihood, repairing the ecosystem and so on." Guoyiming, the representative of the owner of the hydropower station, said

Nowadays, the limited, orderly and paid development and utilization of hydropower resources, the promotion of green hydropower construction, and the role of small hydropower in protecting the ecological environment have become the concept of the water conservancy department to accelerate the transformation of rural small hydropower development. Based on this, the Ministry of water resources has also put forward the guidelines for the development of green small hydropower, the guidelines for the ecological restoration of rivers with efficiency expansion and reconstruction, and promulgated and implemented the technical specifications for green small hydropower such as the evaluation standard for green small hydropower. At the same time, the establishment of green hydropower stations has been launched, the whole process of ecological protection has been strengthened, and the revision of the water energy resource development plan for small and medium-sized rivers has been carried out for the first time in the country, and the plans of more than 3400 rivers in 25 provinces have been revised

"in the future, the green development of small hydropower must adhere to the transformation, operation and upgrading to ensure ecological security." Lu Guihua said that taking the river as a unit, we should transform or add unrestrained discharge facilities and ecological units to ensure the ecological water demand of the river between the dams of small hydropower stations; Build hydrophilic dikes, etc., improve the water resources conditions in the river channel between plants and dams in the diversion river section, and ensure the ecological health of water in the river channel; The manufacturer of the test mechanism for the impact of the hydrological regime of the river in the dry season teaches you big hydropower stations, improves the power generation scheduling mode, and promotes seasonal restricted operation; Small hydropower stations that cannot be repaired and reconstructed should be shut down or withdrawn gradually. It is necessary to gradually establish a monitoring network for ecological water use of small hydropower stations. Through the cascade cooperation mechanism of the river basin, the whole river basin cooperates and continuously ensures the ecological water demand, and constantly improves the river ecology

at present, the establishment of green small hydropower is gradually unfolding. According to the plan, by 2020, hydropower stations with an installed capacity of more than 10MW per station, more than 1MW within the national key ecological functional areas, and supported by the central government funds will be created as green small hydropower stations

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